|Goldenrod Gall click to enlarge|
|Goldenrod gall fly|
|Eurytoma wasp Bucknell.edu|
* Goldenrod is innocent of all charges in creating allergies- its pollen is only carried by insects. It blooms at the same time as its neighbor ragweed, whose tiny airborne pollen particles cause our allergies.
The whole story of these insect's life cycles with photographs can be found at this site.